The Best American Humorous Short Stories Pdf

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The Best American Humorous Short Stories Pdf Download




Book Name The Best American Humorous Short Stories Pdf
Language English
Author Charles Duhigg
PDF Size 1.35 MB
Category Self Improvement
Page 119




The Best American Humorous Short Stories Pdf
The Best American Humorous Short Stories Pdf Download



How to Talk to Anyone Pdf Download
How to Talk to Anyone Pdf Download








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4.3 What mattered was erecting In a fact-checking conversation, O’Neillmade clear that the comparison between organizational routines and individual habits is one that he understands and agrees with, but did not explicitly occur to him at the time.
“I can relate to that, but I don’t own that idea,” he told me. Then, as now, he recognizes routines such as the hospital-building program, which is known as the Hill-Burton Act, as an outgrowth of a pattern. “The reason they kept building was that the political instincts are still there that bringing money back home to the district is how people think they get reelected, no matter how much overcapacity we were creating,” he told me.
4.5 It became organizational In a fact-checking conversation, O’Neill wanted to stress that these examples of NASA and the EPA, though illustrative, do not draw on his insights or experiences. They are independently reported.
4.6 When lawyers asked for permission Karl E. Weick, “Small Wins: Redefining the Scale of Social Problems,” American Psychologist 39 (1984):40–49.
4.8 He instituted an automatic routine In a fact-checking conversation, O’Neill stressed that he believes that promotions and bonuses should not be tied to worker safety, any more than they should be tied to honesty. Rather, safety is a value that every Alcoa worker should embrace, regardless of the rewards. “It’s like saying, ‘We’re going to pay people more if they don’t lie,’ which suggests that it’s okay to lie a little bit because we’ll pay you a little bit less,” he told me.
However, it is important to note that in interviews with other Alcoa executives from this period, they said it was widely known that promotions were available only to those employees who evidenced a commitment to safety, and that promise of promotion served as a reward, even if that was not O’Neill’sintention
.4.9 Any time someone was injured In a fact-checking conversation, O’Neill made clear that, at the time, the concept of the “habit loop” was unknown to him.
He didn’t necessarily think of these programs as fulfilling a criterion for habits, though, in retrospect, he acknowledges how his efforts are aligned with more recent research indicating how organizational habits emerge.
6.10 the surgeon yelled In a statement, a representative of Rhode IslandHospital wrote “I believe [the surgeon] was the one who noticed that there was bleeding—there are various versions as to what he said at that time. He asked for the films to be pulled up, confirmed the error and they proceeded to close and perform the procedure on the correct side.
Except for [the surgeon’s] comments, the staff said the room was very quiet once they realized the error.”
6.11ever working at Rhode Island Hospital again In the physician’s letter responding to fact-checking inquiries, he wrote that “no one has claimed that this mistake cost [the patient] his life. The family never claimed wrongful death, and they personally expressed their gratitude to me for saving his life on that day.
The hospital and the nurse practitioner combined paid more towards a $140,000settlement than I did.” Rhode Island Hospital, when asked about this account, declined to comment.
6.12The book’s bland cover and daunting R. R. Nelson and S. G. Winter, An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1982).6.13candidates didn’t pretend to understand R. R. Nelson and S. G.Winter, “The Schumpeterian Tradeoff Revisited,” The American economic review 72 (1982): 114–32. Winter, in a note in response to fact-checking questions, wrote: “The ‘Schumpeterian tradeoff’ (subject of a 1982 AER paper and a kindred chapter, 14, in our book) was only a facet of the project, and not a motivating one.
Nelson and I were discussing a collection of issues around technological change, economic growth, and firm behavior long before 1982, long before we were together at Yale, and particularly at RAND in 1966–68. Nelson went to Yale in 1968; I went to Michigan that year and joined the Yale faculty in 1976. We were ‘on the trail’ of the 1982 book from 1967, and started publishing related work in 1973… In short, while the ‘Schumpeter’ influence is obviously strong in the heritage, the specific ‘Schumpeterian tradeoff’ aspect is not.”
6.14Within the world of business strategy For an overview of subsequent research, see M. C. Becker, “Organizational Routines: A Review of the literature,” Industrial and Corporate Change 13 (2004): 643–78; Marta S.Feldman, “Organizational Routines as a Source of Continuous Change,” Organization Science 11 (2000): 611–29.
6.15before arriving at their central conclusion Winter, in a note in response to fact-checking questions, wrote: “There was very little empirical work of my own, and even less that got published—most of that being Nelson on aspects of technological change. In the domain of firm behavior, we mostly stood on the shoulders of the giants of the Carnegie School (Simon, Cyert, and March), and relied on a wide range of other sources—technology studies, business histories, development economics, some psychologists … and Michael Polanyi, however you classify him.”
6.16thousands of employees’ independent decisions Winter, in a note in response to fact-checking questions, clarified that such patterns that emerge from thousands of employees’ independent decisions are an aspect of routines, but routines also “get shaped from a lot of directions, one of which is deliberate managerial design. We emphasized, however, that when that happens, the actual routine that emerges, as opposed to the nominal one that was deliberately designed, is influenced, again, by a lot of choices at the individual level, as well as other considerations (see the book [Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change] p.108).”



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